An Optimal Weighting Method in Supervised Learning of Linguistic Model for Text Classification

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  • ABSTRACT

    This paper discusses a new weighting method for text analyzing from the view point of supervised learning. The term frequency and inverse term frequency measure (tf-idf measure) is famous weighting method for information retrieval, and this method can be used for text analyzing either. However, it is an experimental weighting method for information retrieval whose effectiveness is not clarified from the theoretical viewpoints. Therefore, other effective weighting measure may be obtained for document classification problems. In this study, we propose the optimal weighting method for document classification problems from the view point of supervised learning. The proposed measure is more suitable for the text classification problem as used training data than the tf-idf measure. The effectiveness of our proposal is clarified by simulation experiments for the text classification problems of newspaper article and the customer review which is posted on the web site.


  • KEYWORD

    Text Classification , Weighting Method , Vector Space Model , Cosine Similarity

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

    Due to development of information technology, the effectiveness of knowledge discovery from enormous document data is suggested in much of the literatures on this subject (Hearst. 1999). There are many web sites where customers can post their free comments about merchandise that they bought and used. On the internet, the number of customer reviews is increasing day by day. Therefore it has been easy to get a large amount of document data and analyze it for several purposes. Customer reviews consist of not only free comments but customer information and the degree of satisfaction about items as metadata. The analysis using the metadata is more helpful for knowledge discovery than using only text data. The techniques for text mining are developed for the purpose of getting information. Various methods have been proposed in this research field, for example, vector space model (Manning et al., 2008), (Mikawa et al., 2012), probabilistic model (Hofmann. 1999), (Bishop, 2006) and so on.

    In this paper, a vector space model is the focus for document analysis. To construct a vector space model for document analysis, the documents are separated into terms or words (morphemes) by using the morphological analysis (Nagata. 1994). After that, each document is represented by a vector whose elements express the information of word frequency of appearance. Because the vector space is built by the information of word frequency, the characteristics of a document vector model should be remarkable: high dimension and sparseness. Generally speaking, untold thousands of words or more should be treated to represent a document vector using effective words appearing in all documents.

    As mentioned above, there are enormous words which are appeared in whole documents. In addition, term frequency of each word varies widely in length. Therefore, the performance of text analyzing depends on term frequency of words which is appeared each documents. That is, it depends on the length of documents. To avoid this, several weighting approach for each word has been proposed. For instance, tf-idf weighting (Salton et al., 1988), PWI (Probability-weighted amount of information) (Aizawa, 2000, 2003), mutual information (McCallum et al., 1998) and so on. And tf-idf weighting is one of the most famous method for weighting terms. However, it is proposed for information retrieval and the effectiveness is empirically shown. Therefore, the theoretical optimality is not proved. In addition, it doesn't use the metadata or side information for weighting each word. Nowadays, it can be easy to get or use those, and by using that information, it supposes to improve the performance of each analysis.

    From above discussion, the purpose of this study is to propose a new weighting method for each word from the view point of supervised learning. We show the way of estimating an optimal word weighting by solving maximization problems. The effectiveness of this method is clarified by case experiments of applications to the customer review which are posted on web sites and newspaper articles which are used as a bench mark data.

    In section 2, basic formulation of vector space model and weighting methods which have already proposed are explained. In section 3, the proposed method of weighting each word and the way of its estimation is explained. The illustration of simulation experiments in order to clarify the effectiveness of our proposal and the results acquired from the experiments are explained in section 4. Finally, the conclusion of this study is stated in section 5.

    2. BASIC INFORMATION FOR ANALYSIS OF TEXT DOCUMENTS