Survey on the distribution of Macrofungi in Mongolia

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  • ABSTRACT

    This paper reports the species of macromycetes collected in Mongolia: all the species are new to the area. Brief notes on taxonomy, ecology and distribution of the species are added. A total of 30 species of macromycetes were registered, 1 belonging to the division Ascomycota and 29 to the division Basidiomycota. It has been registered that 30 species belong to 25 genera, 17 families and occur in the flora fungus of Mongolia, until now. Specimen for 150 of samples macromycetes collected from June to August, 2015 in Tuv, Arkhangai and Huvsgul were enveloped. Macromycetes have been occured in 9 of 16 geographic regions. According to our studies 2 species in Khubsgul region, 2 species in Khangai region, 3 species in Khingan, 3 species in Dornod Mongol, 1 species in Khentei regions newly registered respectively. As a result of this work, determined 7 species (23%) of macromycetes in forest steppe and steppe regions and 23 species (77%) of them in forest region. The trophic structure for the fungal species is as follows: 2 species lignophite (7%), 4 species moss saprophyte (13%), 5 species soil saprophyte (17%), 15 species mycorrhiz (50%) of all species were respectively.


  • KEYWORD

    macrofungi , distribution , plant-geographical region , Mongolia

  • INTRODUCTION

    The study of classification, species and distributions of macrofungus has not being completed yet in Mongolia (Petrov 1999, Uranchimeg et al. 1984 Kherlenchimeg 2009, 2013).

    First registration and data piling was done in Department of Botany, Institute of General and Experimental Biology, MAS.

    Mongolian researchers have been studying taxonomy of largest family. For example, the taxonomies of families Hygrophoraceae (Uranchimeg and Kovalenko 1987), Agaricaceae (Kherlenchimeg 2014) have been reported.

    The purpose of this study is to the flora macrofungi of Mongolia and as well as to determine species composition of the macromycetes registered and compare their flora analysis, traditional knowledge, ecological groups, growing environment and occurrence.

    Twenty nine species and one form belong to the division Basidiomycota, one species to the division Ascomycota.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Specimens of the macromycetes taken from the Herbarium, Ulaanbaatar Academy (UBA)of the Department of Botany, Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, and an additional data

    were used in this study. Specimen enveloped 150 of samples macromycetes collected from June, 2015 to August, 2015 in Tuv, Arkhangai and Huvsgul. The nomenclature and taxonomy are based on following works of (Singer 1986), (Moncalvo et al. 2000) and following professional taxonomic databases and wesites: indexfungorumorg.name (2015).

    The sampling and herbarization of materials were done according to the classical methodologies (Bondartsev 1950).

    The identification of pileus, basida and ring МБС-10 binocular (14х), Basida, cystide, sporus and further internal morphology was done by JEOL JSM-61008 an electron microscope and МБУ-15 microscope (10х, 40х).

    The geographical distribution data was carried in phyto-geographical regionalization (Grubov 1982) of the Mongolia (Fig. 1).

    RESULTS

    There have been registered that 30 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families and occur in the flora fungus of Mongolia as present (Table 1).

    Mongolian macromycetes have been registered in 9 of 16 geographic regions as a marked by red plus in Table 2. According to our studies from June 2015 to August 2015,

    2 species in Khubsgul region, 2 species in Khangai region, 3 species in Khingan, 1 species in Khentei region and 1 species in Middle Khalkha dry steppe region newly registered respectively (Table 2).

    There were growing 14 species (46%) in deciduous and coniferous forest, 8 species (27%) in coniferous forest, 2 species (7%) deciduous forest, 6 species (20%) steppe of macromycetes respectively (Fig. 2).

    Leccinum aurantiacum, L. scabrum, Lactarius torminosus and Russula cyanoxantha growing in desiduous and coniferous forests or occurring only in mycorrhizal association with birch trees. Cystodermella cinnabarina, Amanita muscaria, Cortinarius torvus, R. emetica grow singly, scattered, or in groups in sphagnum moss near bogs, and in coniferous and mixed forests. Pleurotus ostreatus, Gymnopilus aeruginosus, Panus neostrigosus, Fomes fomentarius and Trichaptum biforme growing in birch, birch-larch, larch-aspen-birch forests. Neolentinus lepideus, Laetiporus sulphureus is a saprophyte and occasionally a weak parasite, causing brown cubical rot in the heartwood in the roots, base and stem. Gomphidius glutinosus, Suillus cavipes, S. viscidus and S. grevillei is grows in the soil of coniferous or mixed forests, not always at the foot of larch (mycorrhizal) with which it lives in symbiosis. Clitocybe gibba, Spathularia flavida, Coltricia perennis and Grifolia frondosa are grows in coniferous forests, on needle or leaf litter, also on bare earth among grasses and mosses. Agaricus arvensis, A. campestris, Calbovista subsculpta, Macrolepiota excoriata and Marasmius oreades are grows in steppe, meadows and pastures. There are grows singly, in groups, or occasionally in clusters. Protostropharia semiglobata is grows in steppe on dung and Panaeolus semiovatus grows in horse dung (Table 3).

    As a result of this work, 7 species (23%) of macromycetes in forest steppe and steppe regions and 23 species (77%) of them in forest region have been determined. There were 2 species of lignophile (7%), 4 species of moss saprophyte (13%), 5 species of soil saprophyte (17%), 15 species of mycorrhiz (50%) among all species (Fig. 3).

    L. aurantiacum, L. scabrum, G. glutinosus, S. cavipes, S. viscidus and S. grevillei are a favorite species for eating and can be prepared as other edible boletes. Traditionally, there are (A. arvensis, A. campestris, P. ostreatus, M. oreades) frequently used in Japanese, Korean and Chinese cookery as a delicacy: it is frequently served on its own, in soups, stuffed, or in stir-fry recipes with soy sauce. L. sulphureus is quite medicinal, and it’s the perfect way to let food be your medicine, and medicine your food. S. flavida has been described by authorities variously as inedible, of unknown edibility, or edible but tough. C. perennis, G. frondosa and T. biforme are a very recent study using human participants. P. semiovatus is while some guides list this species as edible, a few people experience gastric upset after consumption.

    DISCUSSION

    According to our research work, there have been identified macromycetes of 30 species, 25 genus and 17 families belong to 6 orders. According to our studies from June to August, 2015, 2 species in Khubsgul region, 2 species in Khangai region, 3 species in Khingan region, and 1 species in Khentei region have been newly registered. As a result of this work, 7 species (23%) of macromycetes in forest steppe and steppe regions, and 23 species (77%) of them in forest region have been determined. 2 species of lignophile (7%), 4 species of moss saprophyte (13%), 5 species of soil saprophyte (17%), 15 species of mycorrhiz (50%) were occurred respectively.

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  • [Fig. 1.] Map of phyto-geographical regions of the Mongolia (Grubov 1982).
    Map of phyto-geographical regions of the Mongolia (Grubov 1982).
  • [Table 1.] Distribution of macromycetes in Mongolia by order, family and genus
    Distribution of macromycetes in Mongolia by order, family and genus
  • [Table 2.] Distribution of mushrooms in phyto-geographical regions
    Distribution of mushrooms in phyto-geographical regions
  • [Fig. 2.] Growing environment of macromycetes.
    Growing environment of macromycetes.
  • [Table 3.] Herbarium for “Traditional Knowledge” project of Mongolia (2015)
    Herbarium for “Traditional Knowledge” project of Mongolia (2015)
  • [Fig. 3.] Ecology-trophycal analysis of Macrofungi.
    Ecology-trophycal analysis of Macrofungi.
  • [] 1. Leccinum aurantiacum, 2. Leccinum scabrum, 3. Gomphidius glutinosus, 4. Suillus cavipes, 5. Suillus grevillei, 6. Suillus viscidus, 7. Agaricus arvensis, 8. Agaricus campestris, 9. Cystodermella cinnabarina, 10. Macrolepiota excoriate, 11. Calbovista subsculpta, 12. Amanita muscaria, 13. Panaeolus semiovatus, 14. Cortinarius torvus, 15. Marasmius oreades, 16. Pleurotus ostreatus, 17. Gymnopilus aeruginosus, 18. Protostropharia semiglobata, 19. Clitocybe gibba, 20. Lactarius torminosus, 21. Russula cyanoxantha, 22. Russula emetica, 23. Neolentinus lepideus, 24. Fomes fomentarius, 25. Laetiporus sulphureus, 26. Spathularia flavida, 27. Grifolia frondosa, 28. Coltricia perennis, 29. Panus neostrigosus, 30. Trichaptum biforme
    1. Leccinum aurantiacum, 2. Leccinum scabrum, 3. Gomphidius glutinosus, 4. Suillus cavipes, 5. Suillus grevillei, 6. Suillus viscidus, 7. Agaricus arvensis, 8. Agaricus campestris, 9. Cystodermella cinnabarina, 10. Macrolepiota excoriate, 11. Calbovista subsculpta, 12. Amanita muscaria, 13. Panaeolus semiovatus, 14. Cortinarius torvus, 15. Marasmius oreades, 16. Pleurotus ostreatus, 17. Gymnopilus aeruginosus, 18. Protostropharia semiglobata, 19. Clitocybe gibba, 20. Lactarius torminosus, 21. Russula cyanoxantha, 22. Russula emetica, 23. Neolentinus lepideus, 24. Fomes fomentarius, 25. Laetiporus sulphureus, 26. Spathularia flavida, 27. Grifolia frondosa, 28. Coltricia perennis, 29. Panus neostrigosus, 30. Trichaptum biforme