Preliminary Ecological Assessments of Water Chemistry, Trophic Compositions, and the Ecosystem Health on Massive Constructions of Three Weirs in Geum-River Watershed

  • cc icon
  • ABSTRACT

    Major objectives of the study were to analyze chemical and biological influences of the river ecosystem on the artificial weir construction at three regions of Sejong-Weir (Sj-W), Gongju-Weir (Gj-W), and Baekje-Weir (Bj-W) during 2008-2012. After the weir construction, the discharge volume increased up to 2.9 times, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) and electrical conductivity (EC) significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Also, the decrease of total phosphorus (TP) was also evident after the weir construction, but still hyper-eutrophic conditions, based on criteria by OECD (1982), were maintained. Multi-metric model of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) showed that IBI values averaged 21.0 (range: 20-22; fair condition) in the Bwc, and 14.3 (range: 12-18; poor condition) in the Awc. The model values of IBI in Sj-W and Gj-W were significantly decreased after the weir construction. The model of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) showed that two groups (cluster I and cluster II) of Bwc and Awc were divided in the analysis based on the clustering map trained by the SOM. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was similar to the results of the SOM analysis. Taken together, this research suggests that the weir construction on the river modified the discharge volume and the physical habitat structures along with distinct changes of some chemical water quality. These physical and chemical factors influenced the ecosystem health, measured as a model value of IBI.


  • KEYWORD

    ecological impact assessment , ecosystem health , physical habitat , water quality , weir construction

  • 1. An KG, Kim DS, Kong DS, Kim SD 2004 Integrative assessments of a temperate stream based on a multimetric determination of biological integrity, physical habitat evaluations, and toxicity tests. [Bull Environ Contam Toxicol] Vol.73 P.471-478 google doi
  • 2. An KG, Park SS, Shin JY 2002 An evaluation of a river health using the index of biological integrity along with relations to chemical and habitat conditions. [Environ Int] Vol.28 P.411-420 google doi
  • 3. Baker AC 2003 Flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis: diversity, ecology, and biogeography of Symbiodinium. [Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst] Vol.34 P.661-689 google doi
  • 4. Balon EK, Stewart DJ 1983 Fish assemblages in a river with unusual gradient (Luongo, Africa-Zaire system), reflections on river zonation, and description of another new species. [Environ Biol Fish] Vol.9 P.225-252 google doi
  • 5. Barbour MT, Gerritsen J, Snyder BD, Stribling JB 1999 Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and wadeable rivers: periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. google
  • 6. Baxter RM 1977 Environmental effects of dams and impoundments. [Annu Rev Ecol Syst] Vol.8 P.255-283 google doi
  • 7. Camargo JA, Voelz NJ 1998 Biotic and abiotic changes along the recovery gradient of two impounded rivers with different impoundment use. [Environ Monit Assess] Vol.50 P.143-158 google doi
  • 8. Dynesius M, Nilsson C 1994 Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. [Science] Vol.266 P.753-762 google doi
  • 9. Eby LA, Roach WJ, Crowder LB, Stanford JA 2006 Effects of stocking-up freshwater food webs. [Trends Ecol Evol] Vol.21 P.576-584 google doi
  • 10. Gelwick FP 1990 Longitudinal and temporal comparisons of riffle and pool fish assemblages in a northeastern Oklahoma Ozark stream. [Copeia] Vol.1990 P.1072-1082 google doi
  • 11. Godinho FN, Ferreira MT 1998 The relative influences of exotic species and environmental factors. [Environ Biol Fish] Vol.51 P.41-51 google doi
  • 12. Hannan HH, Young WJ 1974 The influence of a deep-storage reservoir on the physicochemical limnology of a central Texas river. [Hydrobiologia] Vol.44 P.177-207 google doi
  • 13. Karr JR 1981 Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. [Fisheries] Vol.6 P.21-27 google
  • 14. Kim IS, Park JY 2002 Freshwater Fishes of Korea. google
  • 15. Kim JH, Yeom DH, An KG 2014 A new approach of Integrated Health Responses (IHRs) modeling for ecological risk/health assessments of an urban stream. [Chemosphere] Vol.108 P.376-382 google doi
  • 16. Kim Z 2013 Assessment of riverbed change due to the operation of a series of gates in a natural river. google
  • 17. Kohonen T 1982 Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps. [Biol Cybern] Vol.43 P.59-63 google doi
  • 18. Kondolf GM 1997 Profile: Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. [Environ Manag] Vol.21 P.533-551 google doi
  • 19. Lee JH, An KG 2014 Integrative restoration assessment of an urban stream using multiple modeling approaches with physical, chemical, and biological integrity indicators. [Ecol Eng] Vol.62 P.153-167 google doi
  • 20. Lee JH, Kim JH, Oh HM, An KG 2013 Multi-level stressor analysis from the DNA/biochemical level to community levels in an urban stream and integrative health response (IHR) assessments. [J Environ Sci Health, Part A] Vol.48 P.211-222 google doi
  • 21. Marchetti MP, Moyle PB 2001 Effects of flow regime on fish assemblages in a regulated California stream. [Ecol Appl] Vol.11 P.530-539 google doi
  • 22. Maret TR, Robinson CT, Minshall GW 1997 Fish assemblages and environmental correlates in least-disturbed streams of the upper Snake River basin. [Trans Am Fish Soc] Vol.126 P.200-216 google
  • 23. McCune B, Mefford MJ 1999 PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data. Version 4.0. google
  • 24. Ohio EPA 1989 Biological criteria for the protection of aquatic life: Vol III. Standardized biological field sampling and laboratory method for assessing fish and macroinvertebrate communities. google
  • 25. 1982 Eutrophication of waters: monitoring assessment and control. google
  • 26. Poff NL, Allan JD, Bain MB, Karr JR, Prestegaar KL, Richter BD, Sparks RE, Stromberg JC 1997 The natural flow regime: A paradigm for river conservation and restoration. [BioScience] Vol.47 P.769-784 google doi
  • 27. Richter BD, Braun DP, Mendelson MA, Master LL 1997 Threats to imperiled freshwater fauna. [Conserv Biol] Vol.11 P.1081-1093 google doi
  • 28. Schlosser IJ 1982 Fish community structure and function along two habitat gradients in a headwater stream. [Ecol Monogr] Vol.52 P.395-414 google doi
  • 29. 1991 Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control. google
  • 30. Ward JV, Stanford JA 1979 Ecological factors controlling stream zoobenthos with emphasis on thermal modification of regulated streams. In: The Ecology of Regulated Streams (Ward JV, Stanford JA, eds). P.35-55 google
  • 31. Ward JV, Stanford JA 1983 The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecosystems. In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems (Fontaine TD, Bartell SM, eds). P.29-42 google
  • [Fig. 1.] The study locations and sampling sites at three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W) within Geum-River watershed.
    The study locations and sampling sites at three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W) within Geum-River watershed.
  • [Fig. 2.] Physico-chemical water quality (Flow, pH, DO, BOD, TSS) in the three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W) in the periods of before (Bwc; 2008 - 2009) and after the weir construction (Awc; 2011 ? 2012).
    Physico-chemical water quality (Flow, pH, DO, BOD, TSS) in the three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W) in the periods of before (Bwc; 2008 - 2009) and after the weir construction (Awc; 2011 ? 2012).
  • [Fig. 3.] Chemical parameters (EC, TN, TP, Chl-a) in the three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W) in the periods of before (Bwc; 2008 - 2009) and after the weir construction (Awc; 2011 ? 2012).
    Chemical parameters (EC, TN, TP, Chl-a) in the three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W) in the periods of before (Bwc; 2008 - 2009) and after the weir construction (Awc; 2011 ? 2012).
  • [Fig. 4.] Tolerance and trophic guilds analysis in each weir (Sj-W: Sejong-Weir, Gj-W: Gongju-Weir, Bj-W: Baekje-Weir) constructed in Geum River watershed. The abbreviations are as follows; TS = tolerant species, SS = sensitive species, O = omnivore species, I = Insectivore species.
    Tolerance and trophic guilds analysis in each weir (Sj-W: Sejong-Weir, Gj-W: Gongju-Weir, Bj-W: Baekje-Weir) constructed in Geum River watershed. The abbreviations are as follows; TS = tolerant species, SS = sensitive species, O = omnivore species, I = Insectivore species.
  • [Table 1.] Stream ecosystem health assessments, based on the multi-metric index of biological integrity (IBI) model in three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W)
    Stream ecosystem health assessments, based on the multi-metric index of biological integrity (IBI) model in three weirs of Sejong Weir (Sj-W), Gongju Weir (Gj-W) and Baekje Weir (Bj-W)
  • [Fig. 5.] Changes of stream ecosystem health in each weir (Sj-W: Sejong-weir, Gj-W: Gongju-weir, Bj-W: Baekje-weir) constructed in Geum River watershed, *: Significant difference (p < 0.05) between Bwc and Awc. The abbreviations are as follows; Ex = excellent condition, Go = good condition, Fa = fair condition, Po = poor condition.
    Changes of stream ecosystem health in each weir (Sj-W: Sejong-weir, Gj-W: Gongju-weir, Bj-W: Baekje-weir) constructed in Geum River watershed, *: Significant difference (p < 0.05) between Bwc and Awc. The abbreviations are as follows; Ex = excellent condition, Go = good condition, Fa = fair condition, Po = poor condition.
  • [Fig. 6.] The map trained by Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for clustering study sites along the weir construction in Geum River watershed from 2008 to 2012.
    The map trained by Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for clustering study sites along the weir construction in Geum River watershed from 2008 to 2012.
  • [Table 2.] Principal component analysis (PCA), based on tolerance guilds (TS, SS), trophic guilds (O, I), fish composition (TNS, TNI), multi-metric IBI mode values, and the physico-chemical parameters. The abbreviations are as follows; SS = Sensitive Species, TS = Tolerance Species, O = Omnivore Species, I = Insectivore Species, TNS = Total number of species, and TNI = Total number of individuals
    Principal component analysis (PCA), based on tolerance guilds (TS, SS), trophic guilds (O, I), fish composition (TNS, TNI), multi-metric IBI mode values, and the physico-chemical parameters. The abbreviations are as follows; SS = Sensitive Species, TS = Tolerance Species, O = Omnivore Species, I = Insectivore Species, TNS = Total number of species, and TNI = Total number of individuals
  • [Fig. 7.] Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the three weir (Sj-W: Sejong-weir, Gj-W: Gongju-weir and Bj-W: Baekje-weir) constructed in Geum River watershed during 2008 - 2012, based on biological components (tolerance guilds, trophic guilds, fish composition, IBI model values) and physico-chemical factors.
    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the three weir (Sj-W: Sejong-weir, Gj-W: Gongju-weir and Bj-W: Baekje-weir) constructed in Geum River watershed during 2008 - 2012, based on biological components (tolerance guilds, trophic guilds, fish composition, IBI model values) and physico-chemical factors.