소아정신의학 역사 속의 진단기준 발전과 현상학적 기술정신의학
Descriptive Psychiatry and the Development of Diagnostic Criteria in the History of Child Psychiatry and Phenomenological Descriptive Psychiatry
- Publish: Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Volume 26, Issue1, p1~11, 31 March 2015
Phenomenology has been developed by philosophers like Kant and Husserl since the late 18th century. Jaspers, a German psychiatrist, adopted it into psychopathology studies and accumulated data by closely observing and recording the patients’ symptoms and signs. Among descriptions done even before the psychopathology or diagnostic criteria of disorders in the field of child psychiatry was established, we can find exact and valuable descriptions matching the autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The diagnostic criteria of modern childhood psychiatric disorders were established based on these grounds. Phenomenological/descriptive methods in various psychiatric fields lead to medical study methods for social phenomenon such as oiettolie, hikikomori, and internet game addiction. Since Romanian orphans were adopted to the western world, descriptive studies along with neurobiological studies on the influence of stimulus deprivation on emotional and physical development are being conducted. While phenomenology, which was adopted by Jaspers to verify psychopathology, was developed mainly by observation and description, recent studies are explaining such descriptive phenomena even at the synapse level due to advances in neurobiology. Although phenomenological/descriptive psychiatry, describing precise and detailed experiences of patients, is less applied nowadays among modern study methods, we must remember that such descriptions may lead to biological studies and provide evidence to improve the accuracy of choosing and applying treatment methods.
현상 , 기술 , 문화 , 자폐증 , 야스퍼스